Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The gonadotropins affect multiple cell types and elicit multiple responses from the target organs. As a simplified generalization, LH stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes and the theca cells of the ovaries to produce Halo steroid and indirectly estradiolwhereas FSH stimulates the spermatogenic tissue of the testes and the granulosa cells Halo steroid ovarian folliclesHalo pills, as well as stimulating production of estrogen by the ovaries. This can be seen during the first 710 weeks of pregnancy, where constantly high and progressively-increasing levels of hCG circulate and mediate production of estrogen and progesterone by the corpus luteum until the Halotestin takes over the production of these hormones. Gonadotropin deficiency due to pituitary disease results in hypogonadismwhich can lead to infertility. Treatment includes administered gonadotropins, which, therefore, work as fertility medication. Such can either be produced by extraction and purification from urine or be produced by recombinant DNA. LH insensitivitywhich results in Leydig cell hypoplasia in males, and FSH insensitivityare conditions of insensitivity to LH and FSH, respectively, caused by loss-of-function mutations in their respective signaling receptors. Another closely related condition to these is GnRH insensitivity. For example, the so-called menotropins also called human menopausal gonadotropins consist of LH and FSH extracted from the urine of menopausal women. Besides the aforementioned legitimate pharmaceutical drugsthere are fad diet or quack preparations, which are illegal in various countries.